The Highwaymen Heritage Trail project would not have been possible without our many contributors, supporters, and volunteers:
The Honorable Linda Hudson, Mayor
Fort Pierce City Commissioners
Rufus J. Alexander, III
Thomas K. Perona
Reginald B. Sessions
Mary Ann Carroll
Carnell “Pete” Smith
A.E. Backus Museum and Gallery
Angela “AJ” Brown
Professor Kristin G. Congdon
Fort Pierce News Tribune
Professor Walt Hines
IRSC Kight Center for Emerging Technologies
Lincoln Park Academy
Mosaika Art and Design
Museum of Florida History
Sequita M. Knight
Lincoln Park Academy
St. Lucie County Regional History Center
Sarah’s Memorial Chapel
Doretha Hair Truesdell
Stephanie Jaffe Werner
Curtis Arnett – pinterest.com/rashford0508/art/
Hezekiah Baker – floridahighwaymenartist.com/paintings.html
Al Black – eliteauction.com/catalogues/050711/catalogue.php?start=200
Ellis Buckner – highwaymenartwork.com/EllisBuckner.html
George Buckner – floridahighwaymen.com/viewitem.php3?item_id=365&gallery_id=50
Robert Butler – 2dca.org/robertbutlergallery.shtml
Mary Ann Carroll – artandgator.com/art-culture/the-first-highwaymen-woman-artist-mary-ann-carroll/
Johnny Daniels – floridahighwaymenartist.com/paintings.html
Willie Daniels – tcpalm.com/entertainment/florida-highwaymen-willie-daniels
Rodney Demps – tcpalm.com/entertainment/florida-highwaymen-rodney-demps
James Gibson – pinterest.com/fla2000/florida-highwaymen-paintings/
Alfred Hair – npr.org/news/specials/2012/highwaymen/
Issac Knight – floridahighwaymenartist.com/knight.html
Robert L. Lewis – tcpalm.com/entertainment/florida-highwaymen-rl-lewis
John Maynor – floridahighwaymenartist.com/maynor.html
Roy McLendon – floridahighwaymenartist.com/mclendon.html
Alfonso Moran – floridahighwaymenartist.com/moran.html
Harold Newton – highwaymenartwork.com/HaroldNewton.html
Lemuel Newton – askart.com/askart/n/lemuel_newton/lemuel_newton.aspx
Sam Newton – highwaymenart.blogspot.com/2013/02/vintage-sam-newton-highwaymen-art.html
Livingston Roberts – tbo.com/arts_music/rare-highwaymen-art-displayed-at-tampa-bay-history-center-20140612/
Willie Reagan – tcpalm.com/entertainment/florida-highwaymen-willie-Reagan
Carnell Smith – shfwire.com/historic-black-art-movement-redefines-american-dream
Charles Walker – thehighwaymen.com/artists/walker_charles.html
Sylvester M. Wells – liveauctioneers.com/item/5693224
Charles Wheeler – floridahighwaymenartist.com/wheeler.html
On the Highwayman
Barton, Jill. “Once-cheap Florida paintings fetching $10,000 and more.”
Chicago Tribune, April 10, 2003. Accessed April 11, 2003. http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/lifestyle/chi- 0304100093apr10.1.3867712.story?coll=chi%2Dleisuretempo%2Dhed.
Beatty, Bob. Florida’s Highwaymen: Legendary Landscapes. Orlando:
The Historical Society of Central Florida, Inc., 2005.
Blair, Cinnamon. “The Highwaymen.” The Ledger, February 1, 1999, D1 & D2.
(Lakeland, Florida newspaper)
Borns, Patricia. “An Eden of Their Own Design.” Boston Globe, November 2,
2008, M1 & M3-M4.
Burton, Tom. “Echoes of the Highwaymen.” The Orlando Sentinel, September 19, 1999,
Butler, Robert (with Dr. Sheila R. Muñoz). Highwaymen Artists: An Untold Truth.
Lakeland, Florida, 2012.
Clark, Jim. “Highwayman James Gibson’s Remarkable Road to Fame.” Winter Park
Magazine, June 2009, 26-29.
Congdon, Kristin G. “Stories About the Highwaymen: Insights About All of Us.”
Visual Arts Research 29.1 (2004): 13-21.
Congdon, Kristin G. and Tina Bucuvalas. Just Above the Water: Florida Folk Art.
Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2006.
Cox, Billy. “The Highwaymen.” Florida Today, January 31, 1999, 1D & 2D.
(Brevard, Florida newspaper)
Dickerson, Joy, W. “The Highwaymen: Their Art Captured the Essence of Florida.”
The Orlando Sentinel, July 12, 2002, E1 & E3.
Dickerson, Joy Wallace. “Florida Flashback: Artists Rode Highways into History.”
The Orlando Sentinel, July 14, 2002, K1 & K3.
Enns, Catherine M. The Journey of the Highwaymen. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2009.
Firestone, Sherry and Glenn, eds. Southern Skies, Gentle Breezes: The Artistry of A. E. Backus. Coral Gables, FL: Dorset Hollow Press, 2001.
Fitch, Jim. “In Search of a Tradition.” Art and Artists of Florida, Winter 1993-1994, 2-4.
(A publication of the Florida Masters Collection, Inc.)
Fitch, Jim. “The Highwaymen.” Antiques and Art Around Florida, Winter/Spring 1995,
133 & 139.
Fitch, Jim. “The Highwaymen-Revisted.” Antiques Around Florida, Winter/Spring 1997,
7 & 18-19.
Ford-Smith, Betty. Unpublished interview notes with Roy McLendon, Sr. and Roy
McLendon, Jr., Vero Beach, FL, April 15, 2014.
“From Melbourne to Miami, Highwaymen peddled paintings.” Daily News, December
30, 2001, B6. (Walton Beach, Northwest Florida, the Emerald Coast newspaper)
Gates, Jr., Henry Louis. October 22-November 26, 2013. The African Americans:
Many Rivers to Cross. PBS Television Series.
Hambrick, Jack. The Highwaymen: Florida’s Outsider Artists. Harrington Park: Janson
Media, 2003. DVD.
Hambrick, Jack. The Highwaymen: Legends of the Road. Fort Pierce, FL: A. E. Backus
Museum and Gallery, 2008. DVD.
Harris, Susan. Photographs by Kathy Sullivan. “Hunting for the Highwaymen.”
Vero Beach Magazine, Summer 2000, 64-74.
Highwaymen: Newton & Hair: The American Dream in the Sunshine State. Fort
Laudedale Museum of Art, 2006. (Catalog for the exhibition; Gary Monroe, guest curator; Annegreth T. Nill, chief curator/project manager)
Hulin, Belinda. “The Highwaymen: A Frenzy Over Paintings that Once Were Sold from
Car Trunks.” Boca Raton Magazine, July/August 1999, 53-54 & 156.
Kealing, Bob. “A Highwayman’s Road to Redemption.” Orlando Magazine, April 2007,
Klinkenberg, Jeff. “The Highwaymen.” The Floridian, August 6, 1995, F1 & F3.
(A section of the St. Petersburg Times newspaper)
Klinkenberg, Jeff. “The Highwaymen.” St. Petersburg Times, August 6, 1995.
Accessed February 27, 2013. http://www.sptimes.com/News/091700/Floridian/The_Highwaymen.shtml.
Klinkenberg, Jeff. “The Highwaymen: We brakes for art. The Floridian, August 13,
1995, F1 & F3. (A section of the St. Petersburg Times newspaper)
Klinkenberg, Jeff. Dispatches from the Land of Flowers: A Snakeman, a Sad Poet,
a Lightning Stalker and Other Stories about Real Florida. Ashboro, NC: Down
Home Press, 1996.
Klinkenberg, Jeff. “The Highwaymen.” Florida Magazine, Orlando Sentinel, March 1,
Koontz, Amanda. “Constructing the Florida Highwaymen.” PhD diss., Florida State
Lincoln Park Main Street Staff Writers. “Original Hall of Fame Highwaymen.”
Lincoln Park Main Street Showcase, Ft. Pierce, FL, August 2012, 1 & 6.
Meindl, Christopher F. “Paradise Restored?” Forum, Winter 2005: 24-28.
Monroe, Gary. The Highwaymen Murals: Al Black’s Concrete Dreams. Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 2009.
Monroe, Gary. Harold Newton: The Original Highwayman. Gainesville: University Press
of Florida, 2007.
Monroe, Gary. “The Highwaymen: Fast Times and Fast Paintings.” Folk Art 28.1, 2003,
Monroe, Gary. The Highwaymen: Florida’s African-American Landscape Painters. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Moreno, Loretta. Livingston “Castro” Roberts: “On the Red Carpet.” An unpublished
tribute to Livingston Roberts, 2004.
Mulzac, Lystra. “The Highwaymen.” Ocala Style, April 2001, 10-15.
Palmer, Rhett. “Famous Highwayman Artist James Gibson.” Vero’s Voice, Issue 20,
Poole, Leslie Kemp. Photography by C. Jordan Harris. “The Highwaymen.” Orlando
Magazine, September 2001, 40-44.
Quina, Pat. “Well-Known Artist Alfred Hair Slain.” The News Tribune (Fort Pierce, FL),
August 10, 1970, 1-3.
Roy, Roger. “Prison walls become canvas for former Highwayman’s art.” The Orlando
Sentinel, May 28, 2000, A1 &A22.
Shih, June. “Artists hit the road.” The Tampa Tribune, June 15, 1995, Baylife 1 & 5
Truesdell, Doretha Hair. “Florida Hall of Fame Highwayman James Gibson.”
Lincoln Park Main Street Showcase, vol. 1, no. 12, March 2012, 1.
“Views at First Junior College Assembly.” The News Tribune, September 17, 1961, 23.
(Fort Pierce newspaper)
Yari, Ethel. “Florida’s Highwaymen.” Florida Living, May 1997, 11-17.
Related Books and Articles:
A. E. “Bean” Backus: The Backus School. Stuart, FL: Martin County Council for the
Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2010.
Allman, T. D. Finding Florida: The True History of the Sunshine State. New York:
Atlantic Monthly Press, 2013.
Baker, Richard “A Toxic Florida Lagoon.” The New York Times (letters to the editor),
August 13, 2013: A18.
Belleville, Bill. (Photographs by Jeff Ripple). “Nobel Waters.” Forum, Winter 2005: 6-11.
Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name. New York: Anchor Books, 2008.
Colapinto, John. “The Real-Estate Artist.” The New Yorker, January 20, 2014: 24-31.
DeVane, Dwight, and Blaine Waide, eds. Drop on Down in Florida: Field Recordings
of African American Traditional Music, 1977-1980. Atlanta, GA: Dust-to Digital, 2012.
Dorson, Richard M. American Negro Folktales. Greenwich, CN: Fawcett Publications,
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover, 1994.
(Originally published in 1903)
“End Mass Incarceration Now.” The New York Times (editorial), May 25, 2014: SR10.
Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Project Administration for the State of Florida.
Florida, A Guide to the Southernmost State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946. (Originally published in 1939)
Firestone, Glenn. Southern Skies, Gentle Breezes: The Artistry of A. E. Bean Backus. Coral Gables, FL: Dorset Hollow Press, 2001.
Fitch, Jim. Living Dogs & Dead Lions: The risks and rewards of buying early in an
artists (sic) career. Pearlmaker Press, 2012.
Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class & How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure,
Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
“Grotesque Speed for Florida Capital Cases.” New York Times, May 15, 2013, A22.
Gundaker, Grey, ed. Keep Your Head to the Sky: Interpreting African American Home
Ground. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on the Road: An Autobiography (second edition).
Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984. (Originally published in 1942)
The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, 1875-1945. Issue 23, Florida Theme
Issue. Published by The Wolfson-Florida International University and The Wolfson Foundation of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, Inc, 1998.
Kennedy, Stetson. Palmetto Country. Tallahassee: Florida A & M University Press, 1942.
Klinkenberg, Jeff. Seasons of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004.
Lehrer, Jonah. Imagine: How Creativity Works. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,
Lincoln Park Academy. Accessed May 3, 2013. http://schools.stlucie.k12.fl.us/1pa/
Lipsitz, George. 2011. How Racism Takes Place. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Mann, Maybelle. Art in Florida, 1564-1945. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1999.
McDonogh, Gary W., ed. The Florida Negro: A Federal Writers’ Project Legacy.
Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.
Mormino, Gary R. Land of Sunshine: State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern
Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005.
Mormino, Gary R. “Dream Fruit for a Dream State.” Forum, Spring 2014: 4-5.
Moylan, Virginia Lynn. Zora Neale Hurston’s Final Decade. Gainesville: University of
Florida Press, 2011.
Peterson, Olive Dame. A. E. Backus. Orlando, FL: Fidelity Press, 2003.
Prahlad, Anand, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Folklore.
Putman, Adam. “Working to Ensure Survival of Citrus.” Forum, Spring 2014: 13.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006.
Rights, Lucille Rieley. A Portrait of St. Lucie Country, Florida. Virginia Beach, VA:
The Donning Company/Publishers, 1994.
Russo, Kathleen, Sherrie Johnson, Michael Sitaras, and Jackie Brice. A. E. “Bean
Backus: The Backus School. Stuart, FL: The Martin County Council for the Arts, 2000.
Stewart, Doug. “The Madness that Swept Miami.” Smithsonian 31(10), 2001: 58-67.
Stillwell, Paul, ed. Introduction by Colin L. Powell. The Golden Thirteen:
Recollections of the First Black Naval Officers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1993.
Stackhouse, Christopher. “Rashid Johnson: In the Studio with Christopher Stackhouse.”
Art in America 4, April 2012: 106-113.
Washington, Teresa N. “Mules and Men and Messiahs: Continuity in Yoruba Divination
Verses and African American Folktales.” Journal of American Folklore 125(497): 263-285.
Westmacott, Richard. African-American Gardens and Yards in the Rural South.
Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1992.
Interviews by Kristin Congdon
Ivory Baker, July 23, 2012, by phone
Al Black, September 18, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL
Ellis Buckner, Jr., July 17, 2014, by phone
Mary Ann Carroll, August 15, 2002, Orlando, FL; September 18, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL
Marjorie Cook-Harrell, July 24, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL
Rodney Demps, May 17, 2014, Fort Pierce, FL
Lee Drake, July 28, 2012, by phone
Jim Fitch, February 26, 2012, Avon Park, FL
James Gibson, October 3, 1999, Melbourne; July 4, 2002, St. Petersburg; FL February 3,
2013, Avon Park, FL; August 10, 2014, Mt. Dora, FL
Kelvin Hair, August 10, 2014, Mt. Dora, FL
Tony Hayden, August 28, 2012, by phone
Zanobia Jefferson, July 24, 2012; September 17, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL
Desirae Knight, May 17, 2014, Fort Pierce, FL
Isaac Knight, May 17, 2014, Fort Pierce, FL
Lillie Knight, May 17, 2014, Fort Pierce, FL
Robert Lewis, Sr., and Robert Lewis, Jr., August 10, 2014, Mt. Dora, FL
John Maynor, May 17, 2014, Fort Pierce, FL
Willie Reagan, May 16, 2014, Vero Beach, FL
Carnell “Pete” Smith, July 20, 2012, Winter Park, FL
Jimmy Stovall, July 25, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL; May 17, 2014, Fort Pierce, FL
Doretha Hair Truesdell, July 24, 2012; September 17, 2012; Fort Pierce, FL
Charles Walker, September 18, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL
Gertrude Walker, July 25, 2012, Fort Pierce, FL
Sylvester Wells, July 2, 2014, by phone